Chicken Broth

Ingredients:
1 chicken (about 1 kg/2 lb 4 oz)
1 carrot
1 parsnip
1 onion
2 1/2-3 l/2 1/2 qt water

Wipe the chicken dry and singe any remaining feathers. Cut off its neck and feet, gut and thoroughly wash inside and out.
Cut the stomach, clean it and remove film; cut the heart; scald its feet and peel, cut off the claws; pick feathers off its head; carefully separate gallbladder from liver. Was all innards.
Put prepared chicken and its innards together with prepared roots into a stock pot and cover with water. Bring to boil and remove all foam and scum that rises to the top. It takes about 1 to 2 hours to cook chicken broth, depending on the size and age of the bird.
To check if chicken has been cooked poke it with fork in the thigh. If fork goes in easily — the chicken is done. Remove chicken and innards from the pot and save for another use. Strain the broth.

Clear Meat Broth

Ingredients:
500 g/1 lb 2 oz meat
1 carrot
1 parsnip
1 celery root
1 onion
2-3 l/2-3 qt water

Wash meat, put it into a stock pot, and cover with cold water. Bring the pot to boil and remove foam that rises to the top. Lower the heat and keep at simmer. Add root vegetables about 1-1 12/ hours after the water starts boiling. To improve flavor and color of the broth, char half of the carrot, parsnip, and onion on a hot cast-iron pan. Season broth with salt when adding vegetables.
Broth should be cooked anywhere from 2 to to 1/2 hours. Remove cooked meat and use it in some other dishes. Skim all the fat from the broth and then strain it through a fine strainer or a clean kitchen towel.

To make even more stronger and clearer broth you can do additional clarification. To clarify broth take 300 g/12 oz of meat (same type as used to cook broth) and pass it through a meat grinder. Add one egg white and a cup of broth, mix and let it stand for 20-30 minutes.  Add ground meat into a hot broth, cover the pot, and simmer on low heat for 30-40 minutes. When the mix curdles and settles on the bottom, strain the broth carefully. Finished clear broth can be served with toasts, pirozhki, corn flakes, or used in clear soups. Curdled mix can be used in a casserole.

Mushroom Stock

Ingredients:
50 g/2 oz dry mushrooms
1 onion
2-3 l/2-3 qt water

Wash mushrooms in warm water and put into a stock pot. Add cleaned and halved onion and cover with cold water. Bring to boil and cook a simmer for 2 to 2 1/2 hours. To shorten the cooking time soak mushrooms for 1 to 2 hours in cold water, then cook them in that same water.
Strain finished stock, rinse mushrooms with cold water, dice them and add back to the stock.

Fish Stock

Ingredients:
500-600 g/18-20 oz fish
1 onion
1 parsnip
2-3 l/2-3 qt water

To prepare fish for cooking scale it, then gut and remove all innards, wash inside and cut into pieces. Remove gills from heads. Put the fish into a stock pot, cover with cold water , add salt, diced parsnip and onion, bring to boil and cook on low heat for 25 to 30 minutes. Remove fish from the pot leaving only head and tail and continue to simmer for another 15 to 20 minutes. Fish from the stock could be used in a soup, or in some other dish.
Fish stock could also be cooked from bones, heads, and other remains of a filleted fish. When using only sub products, chop bones into smaller pieces, gills are removed from heads, and together with tails and fins all this is covered with water in a stock pot together with root vegetables, and simmered for an hour.
Finally, fish stock could be cooked with red fish. In this case we recommend to take fillet of the fish, cover it with cold water, add salt, root vegetables, onions, and simmer for 30 to 40 minutes.
In all cases finished stock should be strained and used in further cooking of fish based soups.

Quick Cooking Meat Broth

Ingredients:
500 g/18 oz meat
1 carrot
1 parsnip or celery root
1 onion
1 1/2 – 2 l /1 1/2 – 2 qt water

Wash the meat, separate meat from bones and pass it through a meat grinder. Cut bones into smaller pieces. Put meat and bones into a stock pot and cover with cold water. Leave to soak for 20 to 30 minutes, then, without changing water, bring to boil,  lower the heat to maintain constant simmer. Add root vegetables (some of which could be lightly charred in a dry frying pan)  and onion to the stock  when the broth comes to boil. Season with salt 20 minutes after start of cooking. Simmer for 30-40 minutes, then strain and use as you would use regular meat stock. Meat from this broth could be used as stuffing for pirozhki or casseroles.

Stock with Bones

Ingredients:
500 g/18 oz meat bones
1 carrot
1 parsnip
1 onion
2-3 l/2-3 qt water

Stock with bones is cooked when you want to use meat for some other dishes (cutlets, goulash and such). To make sure that the stock cooked faster and better, cut large bones into smaller pieces. Put cut and washed bones into a stock pot, cover with water and bring to boil.  Stock from bones is cooked exactly like the stock from meat — at a simmer, periodically removing foam, scum, and fat. The time of cooking this stock is 2 1/2 to 3 hours. To improve the flavor of this stock, about an hour before the stock is done, add peeled vegetables and onion, and season with salt. Strain the finished stock.
Because the quality of this stock is not as good as the meat stock, we recommend to use this stock primarily for potato soup.

Meat Broth

Ingredients:
500 g/18 oz meat
2-3 l/2-3 qt water

Wash meat under cold running water, put into a stock pot, cover with cold water and bring to boil. Once the water stars boiling, bring the heat down to a simmer. Remove all the foam and scum that rises to the top. Skim the fat and use it to fry onions and root vegetables if using them to make the stock. If you will not remove the fat it will decompose after extensive exposure to heat and will negatively affect the taste of the stock. After an hour or an hour and a half of cooking season the stock with salt.  From the beginning and almost to the end of cooking meat releases mineral salts and so-called extractive substances which give the stock its pleasant smell and flavor. Remove the meat from the broth once it is cooked, and strain the broth. Use a fork or a knife to test the meat for doneness — if it goes in without resistance — the meat is ready .
This broth is used in cooking meat shchi, borstch, and other soups. Meat that was used to cook this broth is served with a soup or used to cook other dishes. Meat broth could also be cooked with root vegetables. If using vegetables — add washed and peeled carrots, turnip, parsnip, and onion. After cooking these vegetables (except onion) could be used in a soup, salad, or vinaigrette.